KERAMOS, Number 203/204, January-April 2009 Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft der Keramikfreunde E.V. Düsseldorf Author: Arthur Mehlstäubler (transl. Dr. Geert Gabriël Bourgois) “August Herborth (1878-1968), a man beyond the limit”. (pp. 83-101) The art of the Jugendstil was made by independent-minded artistic personalities. This goes in particular for the ceramic art in the grandduchy of Baden. The focal point there was the school for applied arts in Karlsruhe where the largest number of the most creative minds of the local art ceramics gathered. Max Laeuger, who from 1884 till 1898 taught at the school, is the first to be named. His vessels and tiles, decorated by a proces of poured-on ornaments, are today amongst the first expressions of German Jugendstil. Of similar artistic force as Laeuger was Carl Kornhas. For over 27 years, he taught at the school for applied arts in Karlsruhe. His interests into ceramics were very broad. He had virtuosity in the workings of stoneware, faience, glazed earthenware and porcelain. The same goes for his pupil August Herborth (Ill. 01). Whereas Laeuger and Kornhas have today their established place in the minds of scientists1 and collectors, Herborth has remained largely unknown. And this although he, as was mentioned with recognition in the magazine “Sprechsaal” in 1914, at that time belonged to “our most successful young ceramicists”2. Until the 1950s, he has time and again drawn attention by participating in important exhibitions and by numerous articles in professional journals for ceramics. From 1906 till 1920, the prolific, as well as technicallly and artistically applied ceramicist was in charge of the class for art ceramics at the school for applied arts in Strassburg. Next to Léon Elchinger, he was the most important Jugendstil ceramicist from the Elsas [= part of Germany, bordering France]. From 1920 till 1927, he undertook on behalf of the government an attempt to build up the Brazilian porcelain and stoneware industry. Despite his historical importance, until today there has not as yet been an extensive appreciation of the work of August Herborth. The following article would like to close that gap, although many questions concerning biography and works of art must remain open because of the no longer traceable inheritance. The author got interested in a closer acquaintance with August Herborth because of his collaboration with the catalogue of the exhibition “Jugendstil am Oberrhein. Kunst und Leben ohne Grenzen” (18.04.2009 – 09.08.2009). This exhibition, at the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe, retrieved some exhibited works by Herborth the ceramicist from the shadows of history into contemporary light.
Laeuger: Kessler-Slotta, Elisabeth: Max Laeuger (1864-1952). Sein graphisches, kunsthandwerkliches und keramisches Oeuvre. Saarbrücken, 1985. Kornhas: Mehlstäubler, Arthur: Meister der Vielfalt – Der Keramiker Carl Kornhas. In: Keramos, 1994, H. 144, p. 55-80. 2 Sprechsaal, 47. Jg., 1994, Nr. 8, p. 136.
Education. Karl-August Herborth was born on 15 February 1878 in Paderborn. His family went to Bremen when he was 4 years old. At the age of 15, he started at the ceramics workplace of his father over there. Later, he took drawing and modelling courses at the school for applied arts in Bremen. He was enabled by a scholarship, awarded to him by the municipality, to continue his ceramic education for a further two more years at the school for applied arts in Karlsruhe.3 As a visiting pupil, Herborth went there for the education provided by Professor Carl Kornhas who was in charge of the ceramics class. Just as Herborth, Kornhas was also interested in different ceramic techniques. As such, Kornhas had owned during the 1880s-1890s an independent workshop in Florence where terracotta, stoneware and faience in hispano-moorish style was made. After his return to Karlsruhe in 1895, he applied himself also to architectural ceramics, ceramic painting, decorative glazes and to developing art porcelain. In accordance with his personal interests, Kornhas put the main focus of his teaching at the school for applied arts on the knowledge of various ceramic techniques which would have appealed quite a lot to the broad interests of his pupil Herborth. Both these years at the class of Kornhas have been of great importance to Herborth. The collaboration at the “Ofenfabrik und Kunsttöpferei Carl Roth” in Oos/Baden. After two short training sessions at French stoneware companies, Herborth took over in 1904 or 1905 the artistic direction of the “Ofenfabrik und Kunsttöpferei Carl Roth” in Oos/Baden. On his initiative, the largest kiln in the grandduchy of Baden established an art pottery as completion of its programme until then. Its existence was also known through the new name of the firm: “Ofenfabrik und Kunsttöpferei Carl Roth”. The opportunity to enlarge the production palette and to actualise it, i.e. to reduce the plastic ornament in favour of attractive art glazes, was enhanced by an accident. The factory got burned down completely in 1903 and had to be rebuilt.4 Because of missing archival sources, as well as catalogues and folders, the precise extent of Herborths collaboration can no longer be established correctly. Still, the few preserved, signed ceramic vessels (Ill. 2, 3, 4), as well as references in contemporary magazines and exhibition catalogues show that Herborth besides faiences with engraved decoration, stoneware vases with dripping [shiny] glazing, engraved decoration and dull glazing, highly fired earthenware with poured-on ornaments and incised decoration, also created building ornaments and wall fountains. It is possible that the enlargement of the glazing palette of the factory within the furnace production for artistic glazes resulted from the influence of Herborth. The vessels created by Herborth for Roth bear the 3
Informations until now on his education come from: Cassir, Maria-Carina: L’École des Arts Décoratifs de Strasbourg de 1890 à 1914. L’Institution sous l’égide artistique du professeur Anton Seder. Mémoire de Maîtresse, Université des Sciences Humaines de Strasbourg, 1990, p. 122 and following. 4 The most recent models of a production catalogue (private property) with tiled furnaces are dated 1903, when the factory was completely destroyed. The Jugendstil which can be detected there is still in a starkly historicizing format. The furnaces in a more recent catalogue (private property) which was published after the reconstruction [of the factory] show Herborths typical, squarish and flat formal language.
handsignature of Herborth, which makes one decide that here we have some personal and single copy works. Objects made in series are until now certainly not identifiable. It has to be attributed to Herborths leaving for Strassburg in 1906 that in Oos there has not been an extensive development of the designs. Already in this early phase of his live’s work, Herborth shows his large interest in different fields of ceramic application such as vessels, garden and building ceramics as well as a huge array of decorative techniques.5 The collaboration at the porcelain factory “Thomas & Ens”. The art industry of the Jugendstil is characterized by as well artistic as technical refinement. The circumstances in time were therefore advantageous to August Herborth, yet at the same time artist and technician unified themselves favourably in his person. As was the case with his teacher from Karlsruhe, Carl Kornhas, the technical interests of Herborn also included porcelain. In 1906, he worked for “some months”6 at the porcelain factory of Thomas & Ernst which, started only four years before in the Oberfrankian [= area in Germany] Marktredwitz, was still young and open to new ways. Herborth looked for and found them under the persisting influence of the work by Carl Kornhaus. This one had together with his pupils – amongst whom also August Herborth – at the school for applied arts in Frankfurt visited, in the year 1902/03, the porcelain factory Weingarten near Karlsruhe. At that time, Kornhas developed similar types of decoration in underglazing and scratch techniques as Herborth was doing now in Franken. At the latest with their travelling to Weingarten, Herborth will have learned to know about his teacher’s works in the field of art porcelain. At Thomas & Ens, Herborth developed in 1906 a process by which one partly etched the burned-in glazes and, afterwards, applied gold to the dull places. In another decorative technique, ornamentation was worked into the scorched porcelain ornaments with an engraving pin. Strong decorative effects were obtained by mixing paint within the depressions. A wonderful example of this process – one superb vase, 68,5 cm high, made in the style of the Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Factory and decorated in the underglazing technique – is owned by the Badisches Landesmuseum in Karlsruhe (Ill. 5). Wit both processes, Herborth was a shining example at the Bavarian Jubiläums-LandesAusstellung in 1906 at Nürnberg. A tea service, mentioned in an article on the exhibition “as a ‘masterpiece’ with respect to form and decoration”, showed the etching technique, whereas two “wonderfully large pots”7 showed an inlayed painted decoration. Besides that, Herborth presented at Nürnberg massively poured porcelain platters. They served as furniture inlays at the Nürnberg 5
Example: In Oos, Herberth attempted to apply as colouring means for ceramic masses and glazes a red quartz found by him in Sulzbeck bei Gaggenau. See: Herborth, August: Ersatz für Thiviers-Rot. In: Keramische Rundschau, 27. Jg., 1919, Nr. 1, p. 2. 6 Hampe, Theodor: Die Bayerische Jubiläums-Landeraustellung in Nürnberg. In: Kunstgewerbeblatt, N.F., Jg. 18, 1907, p. 7. 7 Ernst Minder in: Die Bayerische Jubiläums-Landes-Industrie-, Gewerbe- und Kunstausstellung Nürnberg 1906. In: Keramische Rundschau, Jg. 14, 1906, Nr. 42, p. 1015.
exhibition. For his performance presented there, Herborth got one of the recognition awards which were distributed by the producers, who were present at the exhibition, to worthwile collaborators. The porcelain works from Herborth also stood out at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1910. The execution with the underglazing technique of slender and elegant vases decorated with leaves, of the plates and dishes and of the tiles (Ill. 6, 7) was taken over by the porcelain factory of Fritz Thomas in Marktredwitz. Carl Ens had left that company in 1908. Thomas was taken over, in the same year, by Philip Rosenthal & Co., AG. Still, the name of the firm was kept by Thomas. Also, the direction of the firm remained in the hands of Fritz Thomas. An exceptional group, within the porcelain designed by Herborth and produced by Thomas, and exhibited in Brussels, were the vases, plates and dishes with bright lines and fan-shaped leafy decoration (Ill. 8). He reminded the important chemist Eduard Berdel, at that time lecturer at the ceramic school for applied arts in Höhr and afterwards its director, of his “unsurmountable decorativeness and elegance” and of “the decors of the Dutch earthenware production”8 of those days. The collaboration between Herborth and Thomas went on until at least the First World War.9 During those days, when Herborth was working for Thomas, he undertook experiments at the porcelain factory Springer in Elbogen/Böhmen with the intent to produce rose-coloured porcelain through the mixing of manganese. The call from beyond the Rhine. Although about two years had gone by, when August Herborth has finished his studies at the school for applied arts in Karlsruhe, the Strassburg school for applied arts offered him a position of lecturer. Behind this initiative stood Anton Seder, the director of the school. In his written down recommendation he mentioned the reasons for his interest in Herborth. The latter was likewise recommended in Germany, France and England. He had shown his talent already on many exhibitions – as, for instance, on the Third German Kunstgewerbeausstellung in Dresden 190610. With regard to the future education in Stuttgart, it was of considerable importance that the field of his activities encompassed all the ceramic related domains of application from the architectural ceramics all the way to pottery11. Herborths profession meant significant continuity. Already his teacher Kornhaus in Karlsruhe had been, in 1895, consulted about the teaching post at the school for applied arts in Strassburg.
Berdel, Eduard: Keramik und Glas auf der Weltausstellung in Brüssel. In: Keramische Rundschau, Jg. 18, 1910, Nr. 51, p. 594. 9 At an exhibition of ceramics by Herborth at the Coburger Kunstverein 1914 there were also presented plates and dishes in porcelain. See: Sprechsaal, 47. Jg., 1914, Nr. 8, p. 136. 10 Exhibited were dull-brown and dark-creamy glass flasks, partly with cristal glazing, for the pillars and walls of a decorative garden at the Bremer department of the exhibition. See: Offizieller Katalog der Dritten Deutschen Kunstgewerbe-Ausstellung Dresden 1906, Dresden 1906, p. 31, and: Die Tonindustrie auf der 3. Deutschen Kunstgewerbeasusstellung Dresden 1906. In: Tonindustrie-Zeitung, 30. Jg. 1906, Nr. 149, p. 2218. 11 See Anm. 3, p. 123.
Herborth started at the Strassburg school for applied arts on 01.10.1906 and his permanent appointment followed on 01.04.1907. He took over the direction of the ceramic class there – a position he kept until he left the school in 1920.12 Aims and contents of the education at the Strassburg Kunstgewerbeschule. August Herborth established the ceramic class on the basis of a traditional German school for applied arts and provided it with machines, a kiln and a laboratory. He established the education on a broad technical basis and let the students, independently, concern themselves with all the phases of the ceramic production. It was important to Herborth to prepare the students intensively and close to the practical side of the work for their later profession in the ceramic industry. This intention is made clearly visible in the programme for the ceramic class: “The ceramic class has as its goal to educate the pupils in the ceramic profession, in such a way that they can as well artistically as technically exercise their profession in an independent way. The education concerns itself with different ceramic techniques and, more precisely, with stoneware, faience and terracotta, as well as underglazing, topglazing [?] and the engobe [slipware?] technique – the latter one preferably with the pouring can [?]. The pupil has to start with preparing himself the clay and the glazes. Also, the turning of the wheel, the throwing-on of the clay and modelling it, and, furthermore, glazing and firing, in order to get to know the material and its way of handling, porcelain painting, under- and topglazing in different painting techniques”.13 In all the areas mentioned here, Herborth had already gathered practical experience in manual labour and industry. He gave instructions for the most different applications. In this way, the pupils had to preoccupy themselves with, for example, ornamental friezes, tile patterns, vases, decoration for porcelain and tiles to be inlaid in furniture. Next to his activity as a teacher, Herborth saw his profession at the school for applied arts also as a practical means to make the ceramic industry in the Elsas better known: “The ceramic department strives to support the interests of the local profession in so far that she directly gets a feeling of the industry and helps the latter through research on the clay – and undertakes experiments on that clay with appropriate glazes. Also, suitable machines, as well as the newest systems of furnaces with different ways of firing will be shown and explained”.14 Herborths commitment went, indeed, so far that he left the walls of the school for applied arts in order to give advice on the spot in pottery and tile factories. Herborth saw yet another means for practical support of the professional field in masterclasses for potters and tile makers. The growing competition for ceramics through substitute materials such as aluminum and enamel, but also industrially produced stoneware endangered the existence of the traditional pottery workshops. The mainly family workshops in both ceramic centres in the Elsas, i.e. 12
See Anm. 3, p. 122. From: Jahresbericht der Städtischen Kunstgewerbeschule für das Unterrichtsjahr 1907-1908. Strassburg, 1908, p. 17. 14 See above. 13
Sufflenheim where earthenware was produced and Oberbetschdorf with its stoneware, were largely negatively inclined towards technical and artistic innovations. It was important to Herborth that the pottery business, “this treasure” as he admiringly called the profession, did “not get lost underhand”.15 Still, in 1908 some of the potters went against Herborth and even undertook – albeit without success – law procedures against him. The reason for this was his collaboration at the Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke in Sufflenheim who were sceptical towards the potters out of concurrential concerns. The collaboration at the Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke in Sufflenheim. The factory, which carried its most important branch of production in its name, had come forth, in 1903, from the pottery works for garden implements in Sufflenheim, Reibel Mary. Already shortly after his nomination in the Strassburg school for applied arts, Herborth had taken on work here. He took on the leadership of their newly founded department for art ceramics. Quick progress was made here. One could already show objects designed by Herborth at the Internationale Kunst- und Grossen Gartenbau-Ausstellung in Mannheim which opened on 01 May 1907. They got a gold medal. One speciality of Herborth which came into realisation at the Blumentopfwerke were red burnt terracotta flowerpots and terracotta vases with inlaid glazes. Here, sunken and abstract floral ornaments (Ill. 9), and backgrounds of butterflies, lions and phantasy animals (Ill. 10) were filled with blue glaze after the first firing – and the tiles and vases were then baked again. The largest production group of designs by Herborth consisted, besides bowls and candlesticks, largely of slender, elegant vases (Ill. 11) made in highly burnt earthenware and often decorated with two earlike wings (Ill. 12). Dull and semi-dull, as well as shiny artificial glazes mentioned in a sales catalogue of the firm as “exceptionally and impressively attuned colour tones”16, embellished the vases (Ill. 13). With the grey, saltglazed stoneware vessels (Ill. 14, 15), Herborth linked himself to the production from Betschdorf – a traditional centre in stoneware from the Elsas which was only a few kilometers away from Sufflenheim. While he took on the incising technique which was common over there for his finely made decorations with volutes, leaves and points, he disinclined, however, completely on the blue painting with cobalt which was commonly used in Betschdorf. Instead, parts of the ceramics got a painterly decoration with glazes (Ill. 15). At least some of the original designs which were reproduced as a series by the Blumentopfwerke, were later presented by Herborth at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1910 as “modells for the small scale industry from Betschdorf/Elsas.17 However, these found no response at the local potteries.
From: Herborth, August: Keramische Volkshochschulkurse. In: Keramische Rundschau, 29. Jg., 1921, Nr. 12. From: Tonwaren-Fabrik Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke G.m.b.H. Sufflenheim (Elsas). Production catalogue (private property), without year (circa 1908), p. 18. 17 From: Dekorative Kunst, Bd. XXII, 1910, p. 584. Also with illustrations of the stoneware vessels exhibited in Brussels which served there as official models for the Betschdorf potteries. 16
At the Blumentopfwerke, Herborth engaged himself also with the ceramic decoration of architecture. The clay dug up at Sufflenheim and suitable for cindering, and the knowledge in production techniques of Herborth – for example about composition of glazes and firing techniques – made possible the successful production of tiled furnaces, open fireplaces, coverings of fountains and walls. Herborth complied with the stylistic tendency of the later Jugendstil when he hardly gave any plastic decoration (Ill. 16) to the surfaces of his block-like formed modells. They served Herborth to fully bring out the beauty of his art glazes. In a lively lack of rules, the half-dull and dull lustre glazes covered the surfaces of the tiles in overflowing and covering tones of blue and green – rarely also in red. As with the wall fountain, which he presented at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 191018, Herborth favoured quite often silvery lustre. But also the cristal glazes, so much beloved by the Jugendstil, came into use. Comparable to his teacher Carl Kornhas from Karlsruhe, Herberth applied himself next to vases, furnaces and fountains also to wall decoration. He took over from Kornhas the process of not having together in squarish tiles, as was done until then, the ceramic wall images. Their contours were now much more like those of the displayed motifs (Ill. 17). As such, the ubiquitous and disturbing squarish joint screen was avoided. Here, Herborth kept his painterly palette limited. Only three or four colours were used, enhanced by accentuating lustre glazes. As proof of the attractiveness of this kind of wall formation, Herborth decorated the façade of the office building of the Blumentopfwerke, erected around 1908 in Sufflenheim, with such an image.19 With his tiled images (Ill. 18), Herborth proved that he had indeed painterly qualities. Clay plates in one piece, into which the contours of the motifs were engraved and which had their surface mixed by a slight impression into an impressionistic, flamy movement, received a painterly surface in the blue and green tones favoured by Herborth. In Berlin, Herborth got the opportunity in 1910 to present his ceramic knowledge in the field of architecture to the larger public. For the II. Ton-, Zement- und Kalkindustrie-Ausstellung, he designed for the Unterelsässische Industrie an antique-like pavillion (Ill. 19) which should present the qualitative ceramic production of that region in its full breadth.20 Herborth created the ceramic decoration of the façade, of the frontal garden as well of the entrance hall which were all very likely executed by the Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke in Sufflenheim. The decoration of the façade included next to fields of volutes21 in relief, also decorative friezes and capitals. The walls of the frontal garden were decorated by Herborth with large terracotta vessels for plants. The middle of the garden was set out with a tall pillar-like watersource with four surrounding vessels for plants. Their 18
For an illustration, see: Keramische Rundschau, 18. Jg., 1910, Nr. 51, p. 601. For an illustration, see: Keramische Rundschau, 17. Jg., 1909, Nr. 15, p. 293. 20 The company, which prepared the participation of the Unterelsässiche Industrie at the exhibition, chose Herborth as their president. 21 The Musée Historique de Haguenau still has a detail of the fields of volutes, as well as a vegetative decoration piece from the Attica decoration on top of the front hall of the pavillion. 19
dull glaze had, in accordance with the water theme, been given a blue tint by Herborth. The garden areas on the side were each enlivened by a tall red terracotta vase with glaze inlays, as was already seen at the Mannheimer Jubiläumsausstellung in 1907. The front hall, which resembled a wintergarden, displayed wall fountains, wall tiles with partially lustre glazing, as well as red clay pots and clay cabinets with blue glaze inlays. A small source, two chimneys with lustre glazes, two large vases with cloudy dull glazes, but also ceramic sculptures by artists from the Elsas – amongst which a raven, propably by Herborth – were within the inner hall. But this doesn’t end the presence of Herborth. While the one side-room presented the traditional poured-out ceramic from Sufflenheim, in the other one were shown next to stoneware from Betschdorf also terracotta pots designed by Herborth and made by the Blumentopfwerke with glazed inlays and vases, as well as candle sticks with art glazes – probably from the serial production of the factory. Despite its architectural severity, the pavillion offered a feast to the eye of the beholder. In particular, the lively, multi-coloured glazes of Herborth, which graced his vessels, water sources and chimneys, let the presentation in Berlin become one of the highlights of the Jugendstil ceramics from the Elsas. At the same time, it was the high point in the work of August Herborth. Further works. The works mentioned in the previous chapter were executed in the Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke in Sufflenheim. Also, there emerged from Herborths time in Strassburg original vases made by him which cannot be attributed to any one place of execution in particular. The attribution becomes even more difficult because, according to the knowledge of the author, the designs by Herborth and the objects made at the Blumentopfwerke only carry the signature of Herborth. In the bottom of some of the pieces, which Herborth showed at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1910 and subsequently donated to the Städtisches Museum in Hagenau (today the Musée Historique de Haguenau), he engraved “Straßburg” as place of production. This leaves, however, the question open whether these works were made at the school for applied arts or whether at Strassburg Herborth had his own studio outside the school for applied arts. The case for the school is strengthened by the fact that the name of Herborth is mentioned in the list of exhibitors which got a medal in Brussels together with the name of the school for applied arts.22 As could not be expected otherwise from Herborth, the vessels are executed in many techniques. Art glazes, painted faience and engraved stoneware dominate. His “reflective glaze”, a kind of lustre glaze, was given a silver compound and was burned in a reductive kiln. The run-down glaze established irregular shiny and dull spots (Ill. 20) on the surface of the vases, plates and candleholders.
Herborth got a gold medal. See: Keramische Rundschau, 18. JG., 1910, Nr. 43, p. 498.
With the “flaming glaze”, one first burned on a light-flowing, shiny tin glaze on the shards. Over that, one applied a dull glaze saturated with zinc and magnesium. Also here, dull and shiny places came about intermittently in the already burned glaze. Herborth got new decorative effects from the traditional faience painting. This was not so much because he, as was usual, painted only in the as yet unburned tin glaze, but on top of that made the surface of the burned piece dull with acid or sandblasting – which gave the objects an antique look (Ill. 21). As for all his ceramic works, Herborth also applied clay from Sufflenheim for his stoneware objects. For his glazes, there was mostly application of felspar glazes in a half-dull or dull format with greenish or blueish colour. A number of single copy vessels with flowing, flaming and lustre glazes, enhanced with wooden supports and silver mounts, were shown at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1910 (Ill. 22). An exceptional group within the stoneware works by Herborth are the vases with engraved decoration (Ill. 23). These are examples of the interest Herborth had for strongly abstract, vegetative ornamentation. In the years prior to the First World War, Herborth appears to have broadened his production palette at the Blumentopfwerke.23 Realistically elaborated bird figures treated with art glazes developed into a speciality in the plastic field. In order to give them the necessary support, Herborth connected them to high, squarish and upwards tapered-off sockels. The further years in Strassburg. Because of the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 and the related general crisis of the economy, the collaboration of Herborth and the Blumentopfwerke lost its commercial basis. Afterwards, neither did his attempt to be nominated as successor to Anton Seder, director of the school for applied arts in Strassburg, get any result and Herborth dedicated himself to more personal affairs. As such, he turned more towards artistically free work. He presented results of his ceramic painting and sculpture in 1918 at an exhibition in Strassburg. He displayed, amongst other work, a series of ceramic portraits, amongst which an image of himself, his wife, the wife of the artist Auguste Cammisar and the mayor of Bläsheim. Some of the exhibited sculptures were a stark reflection on the political facts of the time and on the chauvinism brought on by the war. Herborth showed realistically made warrior figures, such as soldiers throwing handgrenades, as well as sleeping, reading and writing soldiers. In particular with his “Guardian from Strassburg”, a standing warrior with gun and steel helmet, Herborth followed the official, German-national point of view. Other figures, such as a standing, naked girl holding a 23
In 1909, a bird figure related to the Deutsche Blumentopfwerke is for the first time proven. See: Keramische Rundschau, 17. Jg., 1909, . 294. Whether the stoneware figures, shown in Dekorative Kunst, Bd. XVIII, 1914, p. 57, had been equally executed by the Blumentopfwerke is not known. Marc Elchinger, the present owner of the pottery works in Sufflenheim, thinks it is possible that the glazing and the dull burning of the bird figures was done at the workplace of his grandfather Léon. The example at the Musée Historique de Haguenau, which has been made from clay from Sufflenheim, bears the mark of Herborth, but not one by a producer.
bullet in her hand and a woman from the Elsas with a traditional local cap and long mantle24, did not point as such to any historical references. Herborth had deliberately altered the colourful effect of these terracottas. He had succeeded to develop ceramic overtones, which had been applied on top of the already formed and dried-out clay, with different colours which did not negatively influence the plastic quality of his figures.25 Herborth was always very creative in the field of the ceramic industry. Shortly after the end of the First World War, there was the problem of the war-induced immense need for ceramic products. He saw the solution in the starting up of a huge ceramic production in Hagenau. Herborth saw this place, because of its good infrastructure, as suitable to get a central space for the ceramic industry in the Unterelsas. He proposed26 to produce there tiled furnaces, wall and floor tiles, sanitary equipment, electro-technical appliances and porcelain plates and dishes in large quantities. Herborth himself undertook the tests to find out whether the clay that could be found near Haguenau was suitable for the ceramic production. But the project does not seem to have progressed much after the first ceramic attempts.27 Still, despite his motivated engagement for years with the ceramic industry in the Elsas, Herborth decided to leave Strassburg in 1920 and to go abroad. He responded to a request from Brasil to reform there the local stoneware and porcelain industry. In order to be prepared for his new task, Herborth visited before leaving for Rio de Janeiro ceramic workplaces and machine factories relevant to ceramic production in Germany and abroad. He returned to the Elsas seven years later. The construction work in Brasil. Qualitatively, as well as quantitatively, the ceramic production in Brasil was at the start of the 1920s still very much in need of development. The larger part of what was needed had to be imported. The main import countries for Brasil were England for stoneware and France for porcelain. Herborth checked the conditions for the elaboration of an improved, national production and went on a search throughout the country for useable raw materials. He found them and decided to take on the production of stoneware and porcelain. As such, in Bomsuccesso the construction began of the Manufactura Nacional de Porcellanas, a large and modern factory with connection to the railways. From here, one exported at first wall plates and isolators, later also plates and dishes. The designs came from Herborth. The snowy-white felspar stoneware got art glazes: majolica, dull and cristal glazes, flamy and lustre glazes in iridescent hues. As enhanced porcelain products, one made vases painted with blue underglazing, with running glazes, as well as small figures (Ill. 24). One also 24
For images, see: Herborth, August: Farbige Terrakotten. In: Keramische Rundschau, 27. Jg., 1919, Nr. 51, p. 413. 25 See above, p. 413 and following. 26 Charged by the city of Haguenau, Herborth published in 1919 a 24 pages long text in which he gave, very specifically, all the advantages of the starting-up of such an industry: Advice of the ceramicist, Mr. A. Herborth in Strassburg, on the founding of a ceramic industry in Hagenau. Hagenau, 1919. 27 At the Musée Historique de Haguenau there is a relief tile decorated with a vase motif which bears on its back the inscription: “Erste Kachel von Hagenauer Ton 1920 AH JC”. The initials AH could very well be those of August Herborth.
produced small figures in stoneware. The production of the ceramics started in 1923. On top of that, Herborth initiated the foundation of the Companhia de Porcellana Brasileira in Santa Lucia de Carangola where he took on the technical supervision. He bought the necessary production machines in Germany to where he travelled himself. For his merits in the progress of the Brasilian ceramic production, Herborth got in 1923 the Brasilian citizenship from the Brasilian Minister for the Interior. As to the question what kind of style the new ceramic utensils and art works should have, Herborth looked to the past of Brasil. In the museums of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, he came across the legacies of the original inhabitants. There, from 1921 onwards, he copied with great dedication the decorations from, in particular, the Guarani – an Indian tribe living in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Brasil. But also vessels from the Ilha de Maraja, the Kapikiri-nals [?] and the Tribus do Gy-Parana were drawn by Herborth because of their lost [?] decoration techniques such as clay [Würgel?], finger impressions, engravings and intarsia. The high level of abstraction of the graphic decoration, which had already preoccupied Herborth during his works at Strassburg, had drawn his eye towards the ceramic works of the original inhabitants of Brasil. Herborth gathered his results in 18 exercice-books (“Estudos Guarani”) which, assembled until 1931, finally contained 478 plates of images.28 These drawn and painted decorations largely contain abstract, geometric patterns which are common to South-American folk art (Ill. 25). Next to these, there are also symbolically abstract images of wild animals such as monkeys, snakes and birds (Ill. 26). Some of the patterns were transferred by Herborth at the Companhia de Porcellana Brasileira onto the porcelain vessels designed by him (Ill. 27). Their high, slender forms which still link up with the works Herborth made during the Jugendstil period, he had now under the influence of Indian works complemented with some compact variations. They were, in his words, the first Brasilian objects in art porcelain29 and only single copies.30 In 1926, they were presented at an exhibition in the academy of fine arts in Rio de Janeiro. August Herborth always had the practical uses for his ceramic products in mind. It comes therefore as no surprise that he also used Indian ornamentation in the field of architecture. The manual with drawings, which he gave to the academy of fine arts in Rio de Janeiro, also contains designs for the decoration of outer walls as well as inner walls of houses (Il. 28). Here, Herborth created an expressionistic variation of the Art Déco which voluntarily engaged with the contemporary search for the exotic. Exoticism for Germany. Herborth had the intent to bring the national art of Brasil also across the borders. When he came to Germany in January 1927, he brought along his model drawings of old Indian design. He wanted to convince the ceramic producing industry over here to make use of the outlet probabilities for ceramics 28
Information kindly provided by Márcio Roiter, Rio de Janeiro. Keramische Rundschau, 35. Jg., 1927, Nr. 6, p. 87. 30 As was the case with the drawings with the Guarani decoration, Herborth donated also these porcelain objects to the academy of fine arts in Rio de Janeiro. Source: see above. 29
with old Indian decorations in the Brasilian market. Herborth gave the inspiration to produce ceramics of this kind in Germany and to export them to Brasil. At first, he had some results with nine ceramic producers. As such, they made probe examples after the designs by Herborth. In the summer of 1927, these porcelain, faience, stoneware and mosaic works were presented at an exhibition held at the Berlin Vereinigte Staatsschulen für freie und angewandte Kunst. They had been put together by the teacher at the school, Bruno Paul. In April 1928, there was yet another stage in the exhibition at the Galerie Bremer Kunstschau in Bremen. The renowned exhibitors, the Steingutfabrik Velten-Vordamm in Velten, Carl Ens in Volksledt [?], Lorenz Hutschenreuther in Selb, Georg Schmider in Zell am Harmersbach, the Württembergische Porzellanmanufaktur in Schorndorf, the Aelteste Volkstedter Porzellanfabrik in Volkstedt, Richard Blumenfeld in Velten, the Keramische Werke Offstein-Worms in Worms, and the Tonindustrie Klingenberg Albertwerke in Klingenberg showed vases, plates, dishes, chimneys and mosaics. The initiative by Herborth, at first very successful, didn’t hold very well unfortunately. The only factory which took on his designs within their serial production was the Württembergische Porzellanmanufaktur in Schorndorf (Ill. 29). Their graceful plates and dishes, writing sets and candle sticks were described underneath in accordance with the source of the decoration as “Guarany”. The Vereinigte Zeiler Keramische Fabriken from Georg Schmider in Zell am Harmersbach also thought about a serial production. This can be assumed by a postal card from the firm with drawn designs which sponsors the “Decor Quarany” (Ill. 30).31 Afterwards, August Herborth did not return to Brasil because of his health, but settled down in Strassburg. Activities as a writer. After his return in the Elsas, Herborth very likely because of his health or his age did not return to his profession as a ceramicist. Until 1931, he was still busy with working on his 18 exercice-books with Guarani decorations. During the following years, he undertook extensive studies into the historic ceramic production in the Elsas, in particular Strassburg. Between 1941 till 1943, he published in German ceramicist magazines three extensive and informative articles on that theme.32 At the end of the Second World War, Herborth saw an opportunity to engage himself again with the application of ceramic products. In several articles33, he pointed towards the technical and artistical advantages of ceramic incrustation on the outside of buildings and described their 31
Place: Manfred Zepf, Karlsruhe. Die Bodenständigkeit der Keramik im Elsaß. In: Keramische Rundschau und Kunst Keramik, 49. Jg., 1941, p. 157-160, 169-171. Von Straßburger Kacheln und Kachelöfen. In: see above, 50. Jg., 1942, p. 185 and following. Beiträge Straßburgs zur Keramik und Glasmacherkunst. In: see above, 51. Jg., 1943, p. 37-40, 52-54. [?] Sprechsaal für Keramik, Glas, Email, 76. Jg., 1943, p. 367-373. 33 Die Architekturkeramik und ihre Bedeutung beim Wiederaufbau. I. Teil. In: Berichte der Deutschen Keramischen Gesellschaft e.V. und des Vereins Deutscher Emailfachleute e.V., Bd. 26, Heft 5, 1949, p. 67-76. II. Teil. In: see above, Bd. 28, Heft 8, p. 395-403. Porzellanmosaik als Wandbelag. In: see above, Bd. 28, Heft 10, p. 550-564. 32
manufacture in great detail. For the interior, he advised the use of ceramic floortiles, tiled furnaces and wall sources. The illustrations in his articles show examples of use which, stylistically, still very much remind oneself of his designs from the late Jugendstil and the Art Déco. In 1957, August Herborth left his new home, the Elsas, and went back again across the Rhine, to Oberkirch im Schwarzwald. There, he died on 11.07.196834 at the age of 90 years. Illustrations. 01. August Herborth (1878-1968). 02. Vase, faience, engraved decoration, single copy. Made by: Ofenfabrik und Kunsttöpferei Carl Roth in Oos/Baden, circa 1905. Manfred Zepf, Karlsruhe. 03. Vase, [shiny] glazing, single copy. Made by: Ofenfabrik und Kunsttöpferei Carl Roth in Oos/Baden, circa 1905. Manfred Zepf, Karlsruhe. 04. Vase, incised decoration, single copy. Made by: Ofenfabrik und Kunsttöpferei Carl Roth in Oos/Baden, circa 1905. Manfred Zepf, Karlsruhe. 05. Flat-bottomed [?] vase, porcelain, incised decoration, painting in underglazing. Made by: Thomas & Ens, Marktredwitz, circa 1906/10. Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe. 06. Cup and saucer with decoration in underglazing. Made by: Thomas, Marktredwitz, circa 1910. Exhibited at he World Exhibition in Brussels 1910. Arthur Mehlstäubler, Karlsruhe. 07. Porcelain vases and tiles, incised decoration, painted in underglazing. Made by: Thomas, Marktredwitz, circa 1910. 08. Porcelain vases, painted. Made by: Thomas, Marktredwitz, circa 1910. 09. Tile with inlaid glazes. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, circa 1907. 10. Flowerpots with blue inlaid glazes. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, circa 1908. 11. Vases, highly burnt earthenware, artificial glazes. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, from a production catalogue of the factory, circa 1908. 12. Vase, highly burnt earthenware, running glaze. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, circa 1908. Manfred Zepf, Karlsruhe. 13. Vase, highly burnt earthenware, lustre ware. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, circa 1908. Arthur Mehlstäubler, Karlsruhe. 14. Vessels, grey stoneware, colourful painting, engraved decoration. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, from a production catalogue of the firm, circa 1908. 15. Vase, stoneware, colourful painting, engraved decoration, single copy. Model for the stoneware potteries in Betschdorf, exhibited at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1910. Musée Historique de Haguenau. 16. Furnace, lustre glazing, tiles with images. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, circa 1908. Private property. 17. Wall image with joints encircling the designs. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, circa 1908. 18. Tile with image. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas, circa 1908. Manfred Zepf, Karlsruhe. 19. Pavillion of the Unterelsässische Tonindustrie at the II. Ton-, Zement- und KalkindustrieAusstellung, Berlin, 1910. Made by: Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke, Sufflenheim/Elsas. 20. Vase with lustre glazing, circa 1910, single copy. Exhibited at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1910. Musée Historique de Haguenau. 21. Vase with faience painting, dull, metal mount, circa 1910, single copy. Exhibited at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1910. Musée Historique de Haguenau. 22. Stoneware vessels, engraved decoration, art glazes, partly silver mounts, circa 1910. Exhibited at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1910. 34
Information bye mail from the Bürgerbüro Oberkirch, 07.05.2008.
23. Vase, stoneware, engraved decoration, felspar glaze, circa 1910, single copy. Exhibited at the World Exhibition in Brussels, 1910. Musée Historique de Haguenau. 24. Vessels, tiles, figures in porcelain, stoneware. Made by: Manufactura Nacional de Porcellanas, Bomsuccesso/Brasil, circa 1923. 25 and 26. Ornaments from the Guarani, leaves from the collection of ornaments Estudos Guarani by August Herborth, exercice-book I, 1921-1925, Márcio Roiter, Rio de Janeiro. 27. Porcelain vessels, painted with Guarani ornaments in underglazing, circa 1925. Made by: Companhia de Porcellana Brasileira, Santa Lucia de Carangola/Brasil, or Manufactura Nacional de Porcellana, Bomsuccesso/Brasil. 28. Design for the decoration of a dining-room with Guarani ornaments, circa 1930. From the collection of ornaments Estudos Guarani by August Herborth, exercice-book XVI, 1921-1925, Márcio Roiter, Rio de Janeiro. 29. Coffee service with Guarani ornaments. Made by: Württembergische Porzellanmanufaktur, Schorndorf, 1927. Private property Schorndorf. 30. Advertisement postcard from the Vereinigte Zeller Keramische Fabriken, Zell am Harmersbach, designs for stoneware vases (designed by the firm) with Quarany (= Guarani) decoration. Manfred Zepf, Karlsruhe. Mark. Engraved, stamped, poured, painted in a square or (rarer) in a lying down rectangle. AH for August Herborth and in between a stylised potter’s wheel. Word of thanks. The following persons, I would like to thank for their most kind help: Firm of Manfred Zepf, after 1900, Karlsruhe. Pia Wendling, Musée Historique de Haguenau. Márcio Roiter, President of the Brazilian Art Déco Institute, Rio de Janeiro. Georges Wernert, Firm of Didier, Soufflenheim. Dr. Wolfgang Morlok, Stadtmuseum Schorndorf. Dr. Flawia Figiel, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe. Mrs. and Mr. Syring, Froeschwiller. Olivier Haegel, Strasbourg. Marc Elchinger, Soufflenheim. Remarks. (see footnotes) Bibliography. (the titles concerning Brasil got an asterisk and have been translated) 1) by August Herborth. Baukeramik. In: Tonindustrie-Zeitung, 32. Jg., 1908, Nr. 79, p. 1208-1210. Die Entstehung und Entwicklung des Kachelofens. In: Tonindustrie-Zeitung, 32. Jg., 1908, Nr. 140, p. 2072-2077. Das Glasieren beim Giess- und Stanzverfahren. In: Keramische Rundschau, 26. Jg., 1918, Nr. 36, p. 183. Gutachten des Keramikers, Herrn A. Herborth in Strassburg, über die Gründung einer keramischen Industrie in Hagenau, Hagenau 1919. Ersatz für Thivlers-Rot [?]. In: Keramische Rundschau, 27. Jg., 1919, Nr. 1, p. 1. Des Kachelofens Leiden und Freuden. In: Keramische Rundschau, 27. Jg., 1919, Nr. 51, p. 413 and following.
* Von meiner Auslands-Reise. [Of my journey abroad]. In: Keramische Rundschau, 30. Jg., 1922, Nr. 51, p. 519. Die Kunsten der Keramik. In: Keramische Rundschau, 31. Jg., 1923, Nr. 32, p. 304 and following. * Aus Brasiliens keramischer Industrie. [ From the Brasilian ceramic industry]. In: Keramische Rundschau, 31. Jg., 1923, Nr. 45, p. 405. * Brasilien als Erzeugungsland und Absatzgebiet für keramische Erzeugnisse. [Brasil as a country of production and sale of ceramic products]. In: Keramische Rundschau, 32. Jg., 1924, Nr. 46, p. 184 and following. * Brasiliens nationale Keramik. [Brasils national ceramics]. In: Die Kachel- und Töpferkunst, 3. Jg., 1924, H. 2, p. 22 and following. * Erfahrungen in Brasilien. [Experiences in Brasil]. In: Die Kachel- und Töpferkunst, 3. Jg., 1924, H. 4, p. 58 and following. * Brasilien und die Steingutindustrie. [Brasil and the stoneware industry]. In: Keramos, 3. Jg., 1924, p. 417-420. * Neue Wege zur Schaffung einer brasilianischen Kunst und die deutsche keramische Industrie. [New ways for establishing a Brasilian art and the German ceramic industry]. In: Keramische Rundschau, 35. Jg., 1927, Nr. 6, p. 87. * Neue Wege zur Schaffung einer brasilianischen Kunst und die deutsche keramische Industrie. [New ways for establishing a Brasilian art and the German ceramic industry]. In: Keramische Rundschau, 35. Jg., 1927, Nr. 11, p. 171-174. * Kunstgewerbe – Brasilien – Export. [Art industry –Brasil – Export]. In: Die Kunst-Keramik, 6. Jg., 1927, H. 4, p. 76-79. Neue Motive für Wand- und Bodenbelag. In: Keramische Rundschau und Kunst-Keramik, 35. Jg., 1927, Nr. 48, p. 810-812. Die Bodenständigkeit der Keramik im Elsaß. In: Keramische Rundschau und Kunst-Kermaik, 49. Jg., Nr. 16, p. 157-160; Nr. 17, p. 169-171. Von StraßKacheln und Kachelöfen. In: Kermaische Rundschau und Kunst-Keramik, 50. Jg., 1942, p. 185 and following. Das Schamottegießverfahren in der Tonofenfabrikation Straßburgs (Elsaß). In: Sprechsaal für Keramik, Glas, Email, 76. Jg., 1943, p. 267-269. Beiträge Straßburgs zur Keramik und Glasmacherkunst I. In: Sprechsaal für Keramik, Glas; Email, 76. Jg., 1943, p. 367-373. Die Architekturkeramik und ihre Bedeutung beim Wiederaufbau. I. Teil. In: Berichte der Deutschen Keramischen Gesellschaft e.V. und des Vereins Deutscher Emailfachleute e.V., 1949, H. 5, p. 67-76. Die Architekturkeramik und ihre Bedeutung beim Wiederaufbau. II. Teil. In: Berichte der Deutschen Keramischen Gesellschaft e.V. und des Vereins Deutscher Emailfachleute e.V., Bd. 28, 1951, H. 4, p. 194-201. Die Architekturkeramik und ihre Bedeutung beim Wiederaufbau. III. Teil. In: Berichte der Deutschen Keramischen Gesellschaft e.V. und des Vereins Deutscher Emailfachleute e.V., Bd. 28, 1951, H. 8, p. 395-403. Porzellanmosaik als Wandbelag. In: Berichte der Deutschen Keramischen Gesellschaft e.V. und des Vereins Deutscher Emailfachleute e.V., Bd. 28, 1951, H. 10, p. 550-564. 2) on August Herborth. Meyer, Franz Sales: Kunstgewerbliches aus dem Großhertozgtum Baden. In: Kunstgewerbeblatt, NF 19, 1908, p. 31-33. Dürr, L.: Neue Arbeiten von August Herborth. In: Keramische Rundschau, 17. Jg., 1909, Nr. 13, I. Teil, p. 276 and following; II. Teil, p. 284-286. Dürr, L.: Baukeramische Arbeiten von August Herborth. In: Keramische Rundschau, 17. Jg., 1909, Nr. 15, p. 292-294. Weltausstellung Brüssel 1910. Deutsches Reich. Amtlicher Katalog, Berlin 1910, p. 36. Wolf, Georg Jacob: Das Deutsche Kunstgewerbe auf der Brüsseler Weltausstellung. In: Dekorative Kunst, Bd. XXII, 1910, p. 549-584. Berdel, E.: Keramik und Glas auf der Weltausstellung in Brüssel. In: Keramische Rundschau, 18. Jg., 1910, Nr. 51, p. 592-603.
Tostmann, C.: Die unterelsässische Tonindustrie auf der Ausstellung. In: Keramische Rundschau, 18. Jg., 1910, Nr. 27, p. 309-311. Berliner Architekturwelt, Jg. 13, 1911, p. 195, 205. Sprechsaal, 47. Jg., 1914, Nr. 8, p. 136. Dekorative Kunst, Bd. XVIII, 1914, p. 57. Kunst und Handwerk, Bd. 71, 1921, H. 3, p. 51 and following. * Melsenbach, J.A.: Brasilianische Keramik. [Brasilian ceramics]. In: Die Schaulade, 2. Jg., 1926, H. 6., p. 373-378. Keramische Rundschau, 35. Jg., 1927, Nr. 29, p. 473 and following. * Grell, Johanna: Altbrasilianische Kunst und ihre Umwertung für moderne Keramik. [Old Brasilian art and its revalutaion for modern ceramics]. In: Keramische Rundschau, 35. Jg., Nr. 31, p. 495-499. Keramische Rundschau und Kunst-Keramik, 36. Jg., 1928, Nr. 20, p. 391. Sprechsaal für Keramik, Glas Email, 91 Jg., 1958, Nr. 3, p. 59. Jugendstil. Glas, Grafik, Keramik, Metall, Möbel, Skulpturen und Textilien von 1880 bis 1915. Bestandskatalog Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe, bearb. von Irmela Franzke, Karlsruhe 1987, p. 330, 362. Cassir, Maria-Carina: L’École des Arts Décoratifs de Strasbourg de 1890 à 1914: L’Institution sous l’égide artistique du professeur Anton Seder. Mémoire de Maîtresse, Université des Sciences Humaines de Strasbourg, 1990, p. 122-125, 194 and following. Cent cinquante ans de production en Alsace 1800 – 1950. La céramique de Soufllenheim, Lyon (without year), p. 91. Niecol, Emmy: Rosenthal. Kunst- und Zierpozellan 1897 – 1945, Bd. 5, Wohlnzach 2004, p. 132-134. Source of the illustrations. 1 Keramische Rundschau, 17. Jg., 1909, Nr. 13, p. 276. 2, 18 Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe, Thomas Goldschmidt. 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 20, 21, 23, 31 author. 7 Dekorative Kunst, Bd. XXII, 1910, p. 584. 8 Keramische Rundschau, 18. Jg., 1910, Nr. 51, p. 592. 10 Keramische Rundschau, 17. Jg. 1909, Nr. 13, p. 276. 11 Tonwarenfabrik Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke G.m.b.H. Sufflenheim (Elsaß), production catalogue, circa 1908, p. 19. Private property Soufflenheim. 14 Tonwarenfabrik Erste Deutsche Blumentopfwerke G.m.b.H. Sufflenheim (Elsaß), production catalogue, circa 1908, p. 28. Private property Soufflenheim. 16 Cent cinquante ans de production en Alsace 1800 – 1950. La céramique de Soufflenheim, Lyon (without year), p. 91. 17 Keramische Rundschau, 17. Jg., 1909, Nr. 15, p. 292. 19 Berliner Architekturwelt, Jg. 13, 1911, p. 195. 22 Keramische Rundschau, 18. Jg., 1910, Nr. 51, p. 600. 24 Keramos, 3. Jg., 1924, p. 419. 25, 26, 28 Márcio Roiter, Rio de Janeiro. 27 Die Schaulade, 2. Jg., 1926, H. 6, p. 375. 29 Stadtmuseum Schorndorf. 30 Firm of Manfred Zepf, after 1900, Karlsruhe.